new paper/Nicotinic agonists, antagonists, and modulators from natural sources.

HSLotsof at HSLotsof at
Fri Aug 5 01:03:32 EDT 2005

Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2005 Jun;25(3-4):513-52.    
Nicotinic agonists, antagonists, and modulators from natural sources.
Daly JW.
Laboratory of Bioorganic Chemistry, National Institute of Diabetes and 
Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, Bethesda, 
1. Acetylcholine receptors were initially defined as nicotinic or muscarinic, 
based on selective activation by two natural products, nicotine and 
muscarine. Several further nicotinic agonists have been discovered from natural 
sources, including cytisine, anatoxin, ferruginine, anabaseine, epibatidine, and 
epiquinamide. These have provided lead structures for the design of a wide range 
of synthetic agents.2. Natural sources have also provided competitive nicotinic 
antagonists, such as the Erythrina alkaloids, the tubocurarines, and 
methyllycaconitine. Noncompetitive antagonists, such as the histrionicotoxins, various 
izidines, decahydroquinolines, spiropyrrolizidine oximes, pseudophrynamines, 
ibogaine, strychnine, cocaine, and sparteine have come from natural sources. 
Finally, galanthamine, codeine, and ivermectin represent positive modulators of 
nicotinic function, derived from natural sources.3. Clearly, research on 
acetylcholine receptors and functions has been dependent on key natural products 
and the synthetic agents that they inspired.

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